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Key Facts
Population 47 million (2022)
National Language(s) Spanish
Currency Euro (€)
GDP Per Capita (US$) 27,057
Human Development Index 0.905 (27/191)
Location and area 505,370 Square KM
Western Europe
4964 km of coastline
Background / History
Spain has emerged from a severe economic recession that began in mid-2008, posting solid years of GDP growth above the EU average.

Unemployment has fallen but remains high, especially among youth. Spain is the euro-zone's fourth-largest economy and is a party to the Schengen Agreement.

The country has faced increased domestic turmoil in recent years due to the independence movement in its restive Catalonia region.
Major industries in Spain
Tourism, Pharmaceutical, Agri-Food

Spain is a world leader in tourism. It has placed first on the World Economic Forum ranking since 2015, out of 140 countries, for being the most competitive in the tourism industry. Spain is also the second largest automaker in Europe, and the eighth largest globally. The industry accounts for around 10% of their GDP and almost 20% of their total exports.

The pharmaceutical industry in Spain is the industrial leader of spending on research, accounting for over 20% of total private investment in R&D. Interestingly, of the more than 425 companies in the industry, around 60% are foreign.

Spain's Agri-Food industry is its main manufacturing activity, employing over 450,000 people, with around €140 billion revenue annually. It's the fourth largest in Europe, and tenth largest globally. Its excellent logistics and infrastructure systems enabled a smooth supply chain during the pandemic, and it was even able to increase exports.
Gender Inequality Index (GII)
The GII measures gender inequalities (the loss in human development due to inequality between female and male achievements) in three key dimensions – reproductive health, empowerment, and labour market.
Green = equality, Red = inequality
Human Development Index
The HDI is a summary measure for assessing long-term progress in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. 

Spain's HDI value for 2021 is 0.905 -which put the country in the Very High human development category- positioning it at 27 out of 191 countries and territories.

Trust in Government
Trust in government refers to the share of people who answered "yes" to the question "In this country, do you have confidence in… national government?", other response categories being "no", and "don't know".
* Higher is better
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France.

Although there are differences among various regions, Spain has a Mediterranean-continental climate. The weather in the northern coastal regions (bordering the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay) is temperate and often rainy throughout the year, and temperatures are neither very low in winter nor very high in summer.

The climate on the Mediterranean coastline, including the Balearic Islands, is typically Mediterranean – mild in the winter, and hot and dry in the summer.
The differences are more extreme on the inland plateau, where Madrid is located, and which is the highest capital in Europe. The climate is dry, with cold winters and hot summers.
The Canary Islands have a climate of their own, with pleasant temperatures all year and a short, milder winter.
Good to Know
Transnational Issues:
  • Spain-Gibraltar (UK) dispute over Gibraltar sovereignty

  • Spain-Morocco disputes over Spain's control over the coastal enclaves along the coast of Morocco and over the illegal migration through Morocco into mainland Spain

  • Spain-Portugal dispute over the Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza
Refugees in Spain are primarily citizens of Venezuela (418k), Ukraine (131k as of July 2022) and Syria (14k)

  • Military expenditures represent 1% of GDP (2021 est.) with 120,000 active duty troops (2022)

  • The Spanish Marine Corps, established in 1537, is the oldest marine corps in the world
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Major Cities

Madrid* 6,713,557
Barcelona 5,658,472
Valencia 836,857
Zaragoza 736,488
Sevilla 701,339
Malaga 592,091
Source: analysis based on its own data and the most reliable sources